Gut microbiota and autism

Grzegorz Boreński, Magdalena Wójcik, Julita Poleszak, Przemysław Szabat, Marta Szabat, Joanna Milanowska

Abstract


Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) constitutes a group of brain developmental disorders and is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. ASD has no clear etiology and research is still ongoing to find it. Gut microbiota seems to have significant impact on the development of autism.

The aim of the study: The purpose of this systemic review was to collect and analyse available data about the role of gut microbiota and new methods of treatment of ASD.

Material and method: Standard criteria were used to review the literature data. The search of articles in the PubMed and Google Scholar database was carried out using the following keywords: autism spectrum disorder, gut microbiota, probiotics.

Description of the state of knowledge: In the studies we can found that symptoms from gastrointestinal tract occur more often in patients with ASD. Many studies confirm alterations in gut microbiota accompanying autism. The general changes are imbalance between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla, increased population of Sutterella and higher level of cultured Clostridium species in the feces. Researchers try to find a reason of these microbiota changes and the main cause they indicate is using antibiotics. Restoration of microbial balance in the colon, for instance by probiotics or microbiota transfer therapy may have beneficial effect on treatment of ASD.
Summary: Complicated relationship between gut microbiota and brain needs more studies, but at that point we can find its association with autism and ASD and also with anorexia nervosa, depression and other mood disorders and GI diseases. Among currently available methods of treatment we can distinguish behavioural treatment, pharmacological approach (risperidone and aripiprazole) and complementary and alternative medicine therapies. Understanding the impact of microbiota on autism opens up new paths of treatment, for instance probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation or microbiota transfer therapy. Although, there is a great need for more researches of their efficacy.

Keywords


autism spectrum disorder; gut microbiota; probiotics

Full Text:

PDF

References


Chaste P, Leboyer M. Autism risk factors: genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions. Dialogues ClinNeurosci. 2012 14(3):281–292.

Sanchack KE, Thomas CA. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles. Am Fam Physician. 2016 94(12):972-979.

Akins RS, Krakowiak P, Angkustsiri K, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen RL. Utilization patterns of conventional and complementary/alternative treatments in children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities in a population-based study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2014 35(1):1–10.

Nikolov RN, Bearss KE, Lettinga J, Erickson C, Rodowski M, Aman MG, et al. Gastrointestinal symptoms in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009 39(3):405-13.

Pavăl D. A Dopamine Hypothesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. DevNeurosci. 2017 39(5):355-360.

Abrahams BS, Geschwind DH. Advances in autism genetics: on the threshold of a new neurobiology [published correction appears in Nat Rev Genet. 2008 Jun;9(6):493]. Nat Rev Genet. 2008 9(5):341–355.

Belmonte MK, Cook EH Jr, Anderson GM, Rubenstein JL, Greenough WT, Beckel-Mitchener A, et al. Autism as a disorder of neural information processing: directions for research and targets for therapy. Mol Psychiatry. 2004 9(7):646-63.

Currenti SA. Understanding and determining the etiology of autism. Cell MolNeurobiol. 2010 Mar;30(2):161-71.

Mazmanian SK, Round JL, Kasper DL. A microbial symbiosis factor prevents intestinal inflammatory disease. Nature. 2008 453(7195):620-5.

Mangiola F, Ianiro G, Franceschi F, Fagiuoli S, Gasbarrini G, Gasbarrini A. Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 22(1):361–368.

Ley RE, Peterson DA, Gordon JI. Ecological and evolutionary forces shaping microbial diversity in the human intestine. Cell. 2006 124:837–848.

Rhee SH, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Principles and clinical implications of the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 6(5):306–314.

Belkaid Y, Harrison OJ. Homeostatic Immunity and the Microbiota. Immunity. 2017 46(4):562–576.

Eckburg PB, Lepp PW, Relman DA. Archaea and their potential role in human disease. Infect Immun. 2003;71(2):591–596.

Sartor RB. Microbial influences in inflammatory bowel diseases. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:577–594.

Garrett WS. Cancer and the microbiota. Science. 2015 348(6230):80–86.

Louis P, Young P, Holtrop G, Flint HJ. Diversity of human colonic butyrate-producing bacteria revealed by analysis of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene. Environ Microbiol. 2010 12(2):304-14.

Cenit MC, Sanz Y, Codoñer-Franch P. Influence of gut microbiota on neuropsychiatric disorders. World J Gastroenterol. 2017 23(30):5486–5498.

Wang HX, Wang YP. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2016 129(19):2373–2380.

Ding HT, Taur Y, Walkup JT. Gut Microbiota and Autism: Key Concepts and Findings. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017 47(2):480-489.

Wang Y, Kasper LH. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.2014 38:1–12.

O’Mahony SM, Hyland NP, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Maternal separation as a model of brain–gut axis dysfunction. Psychopharmacology.2011 214(1):71–88.

Goehler LE, Park SM, Opitz N, Lyte M, Gaykema RP. Campylobacter jejuni infection increases anxiety-like behavior in the holeboard: Possible anatomical substrates for viscerosensory modulation of exploratory behavior. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2008 22(3):354–366.

Wang LW, Tancredi DJ, Thomas DW. The prevalence of gastrointestinal problems in children across the United States with autism spectrum disorders from families with multiple affected members. J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 201132:351–360.

McElhanon BO, McCracken C, Karpen S, Sharp WG. Gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2014133:872–883.

D'Eufemia P, Celli M, Finocchiaro R, Pacifico L, Viozzi L, Zaccagnini M, et al. Abnormal intestinal permeability in children with autism. Acta Paediatr. 1996 85:1076-1079.

Kohane IS, McMurry A, Weber G, MacFadden D, Rappaport L, Kunkel L, et al. The co-morbidity burden of children and young adults with autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One. 2012 7:e33224.

Finegold SM, Downes J, Summanen PH: Microbiology of regressive autism. Anaerobe. 2012 18:260-262

Kang DW, Park JG, Ilhan ZE, Wallstrom G, Labaer J, Adams JB, et al. Reduced incidence of Prevotella and other fermenters in intestinal microflora of autistic children. PLoS One. 2013 8:e68322.

Adams JB, Johansen LJ, Powell LD, Quig D, Rubin RA. Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status in children with autism–comparisons to typical children and correlation with autism severity. BMC Gastroenterology. 2011 11:22.

Finegold SM, Dowd SE, Gontcharova V, Liu C, Henley KE, Wolcott RD, et al. Pyrosequencing study of fecal microflora of autistic and control children. Anaerobe. 2010 16:444–453.

Williams BL, Hornig M, Parekh T, Lipkin WI. Application of novel PCR-based methods for detection, quantitation, and phylogenetic characterization of Sutterella species in intestinal biopsy samples from children with autism and gastrointestinal disturbances. MBio. 2012 3(1):e00261-11.

Wang L, Christophersen CT, Sorich MJ, Gerber JP, Angley MT, Conlon MA. Increased abundance of Sutterella spp. and Ruminococcus torques in feces of children with autism spectrum disorder. Mol Autism. 2013 4:42.

Kovatcheva-Datchary P, Nilsson A, Akrami R, Lee YS, De Vadder F, Arora T, et al. Dietary Fiber-Induced Improvement in Glucose Metabolism Is Associated with Increased Abundance of Prevotella. Cell Metab. 2015 22(6):971-82.

Sandler RH, Finegold SM, Bolte ER, Buchanan CP, Maxwell AP, Väisänen ML, et al. Short-term benefit from oral vancomycin treatment of regressive-onset autism. J Child Neurol. 2000 15(7):429-35.

Bolte ER. Autism and Clostridium tetani. Med Hypotheses. 1998 51(2):133-44.

Dürre P. Physiology and Sporulation in Clostridium. Microbiol Spectr. 2014 2(4):TBS-0010-2012.

Cassir N, Benamar S, La Scola B. Clostridium butyricum: from beneficial to a new emerging pathogen. ClinMicrobiol Infect. 2016 22(1):37-45.

Ohtani K, Shimizu T. Regulation of Toxin Production in Clostridium perfringens. Toxins (Basel). 2016 8(7):207.

Cohen JE, Wang R, Shen RF, Wu WW, Keller JE. Comparative pathogenomics of Clostridium tetani. PLoS One. 2017 12(8):e0182909.

Oh HM, Chung ME. Botulinum Toxin for Neuropathic Pain: A Review of the Literature. Toxins (Basel). 2015 7(8):3127–3154.

Edwards AN, McBride SM. Isolating and Purifying Clostridium difficile Spores. Methods Mol Biol. 2016 1476:117–128.

Abt MC, McKenney PT, Pamer EG. Clostridium difficile colitis: pathogenesis and host defence. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016 14(10):609–620.

Finegold SM, Molitoris D, Song Y, Liu C, Vaisanen ML, Bolte E, et al. Gastrointestinal microflora studies in late-onset autism. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 35(Suppl 1):S6–S16.

Li Q, Han Y, Dy ABC, Hagerman RJ. The Gut Microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017 11:120.

Huang R, Wang K, Hu J. Effect of Probiotics on Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2016 8(8):483.

Verna EC, Lucak S. Use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders: what to recommend?. TherapAdvGastroenterol. 2010 3(5):307–319.

Sáez-Lara MJ, Robles-Sanchez C, Ruiz-Ojeda FJ, Plaza-Diaz J, Gil A. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 17(6):928.

Hsiao EY, McBride SW, Hsien S, Sharon G, Hyde ER, McCue T, et al. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cell. 2013 155(7):1451–1463.

West R, Roberts E, Sichel LS, Sichel J. Improvements in gastrointestinal symptoms among children with autism spectrum disorder receiving the Delpro® probiotic and immunomodulatory formulation. J. Probiotics Health. 2013 1:2.

Kaluzna-Czaplinska J, Blaszczyk S. The level of arabinitol in autistic children after probiotic therapy. Nutrition. 201228:124–126.

Vrieze A, de Groot PF, Kootte RS, Knaapen M, van Nood E, Nieuwdorp M. Fecal transplant: a safe and sustainable clinical therapy for restoring intestinal microbial balance in human disease?Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 201327:127–137.

Lessa FC, Mu Y, Bamberg WM, Beldavs ZG, Dumyati GK, Dunn JR, et al. Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 2015 372:825–834.

Aroniadis OC, Brandt LJ. Fecal microbiota transplantation: past, present and future. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013 29(1):79-84.

Kang DW, Adams JB, Gregory AC, Borody T, Chittick L, Fasano A, et al. Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study. Microbiome. 2017 5(1):10.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3395320

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/search?search&searchCategory=WORK&filter.inJournal=36616

POL-index 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-32a319c5-a850-4f44-ba70-1418a6087655

BASE 2011 - 2014

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=Journal+of+Health+Sciences+%28Radom%29&type=all&oaboost=1&ling=1&name=&thes=&refid=dcrespl&newsearch=1

http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/issue/archive

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101679844

Find a library that holds this journal: http://worldcat.org/issn/23918306

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/journals/49068

POL-index

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-c39c8169-88d2-45db-9e7f-d948ce9981c4

BASE

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?join=AND&bool0[]=AND&lookfor0[]=2391-8306&type0[]=all&page=11&l=pl&oaboost=1&refid=dcpagepl

Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2  www.ukw.edu.pl Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=485984

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.

http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/Journal+of+Education+Health+and+Sport,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase Index.com.

Website: www.infobaseindex.com

Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (http://www.uifactor.org/AppliedJournals.aspx)

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/journals/36616)

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ) http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski

(http://www1.bg.us.edu.pl/bazy/czasopisma/czasop_full.asp?id=3595)