A person with diabetes as a patient - basic rules of conduct

Monika Prylińska, Jakub Husejko, Mariusz Wąsicki, Mateusz Modrzejewski, Dorota Szewczak, Martyna Lamtych, Joanna Osiak, Marta Bryfczyńska, Paulina Trawka, Dorota Rogala, Milena Kwietniewska, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska

Abstract


BACKGROUND: Diabetes is very widespread disease. More and more patients suffer from hyperglycaemia and low levels of insulin because of obesity, aging and wrong diet. The most important in treatment based on health condition is to normalize glucose level. It is recommended to treat patients to avoid many complications of hyperglycaemia, e.g. cardiovascular diseases, stroke episodes, neuropathy or nephropathy. The most common cause of death are cardiovascular problems and renal failure.


MATERIAL AND METHODS: A proper review of published literature provide to define laboratory indexes, risk factors, complications to precise methods of treatment among patients with diabetes.


RESULTS: The problem of growing number of people suffering from diabetes is an important issue to find solutions to conduct their treatment. Basic method is a change of diet and body loss. The most important medicament in treatment is metformin. To achieve the best results of conducting therapy should be extended by pioglitazone or liraglutide. Also addition of aspirin lower dyslipidemia problems. Such a combination provides to minimise side effects of sickness.


CONCLUSIONS: Number of people suffering from DM is still and will be growing over the next years. It is significant to diagnose these people because untreated diabetes provides to many complications e.g. stroke or acute coronary syndrome. It is important to examine patients correctly what allows to turn on correct treatment. Basic standards in treatment should contain lower glucose levels, avoid complications to enhance life quality. . Expanded therapy is also concentrated on hypertension, acidosis and ketoacidosis coma to obtain beneficial effects.

Keywords


diabetes; stroke; cardiovascular; hyperglycaemia; neuropathy; nephropathy; treatment; metformin

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kerner, W., & Brückel, J. (2014). Definition, classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, 122(07), 384-386.

Roden, M. (2004). Diabetes mellitus--Definition, Klassifikation und Diagnose. Acta Medica Austriaca, 31(5), 156-157.

CARE, I. (2018). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2018 Abridged for Primary Care Providers.

Gopalraj, R. (2017). The Older Adult with Diabetes and The Busy Clinicians. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 44(3), 469-479.

Kawalec P., Kielar M., Pilc A.: Koszty leczenia cukrzycy typu 1 i 2 w Polsce. Diabetologia Praktyczna 2006;7;5: 287-294

Chojnowski P., Wasyluk J., Grabska-Liberek I.: Cukrzyca – epidemiologia i patogeneza. Postępy Nauk Medycznych 2009;6:420-428

World Health Organization. Data and statistics: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/diabetes/data-and-statistics. Access 22.8.2019.

Raport Instytutu Ochrony Zdrowia: Cukrzyca gdzie jesteśmy? Dokąd zmierzamy? Warszawa 2018

Brownlee, M. (2005). The pathobiology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanism. diabetes, 54(6), 1615-1625

Xu, J., Chen, L. J., Yu, J., Wang, H. J., Zhang, F., Liu, Q., & Wu, J. (2018). Involvement of advanced glycation end products in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, 48(2), 705-717.

Vanessa Fiorentino, T., Prioletta, A., Zuo, P., & Folli, F. (2013). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and its role in diabetes mellitus related cardiovascular diseases. Current pharmaceutical design, 19(32), 5695-5703.

Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. (2008). Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. New England journal of medicine, 358(24), 2545-2559.

Fishbein, H. A., & Palumbo, P. J. (1995). Acute metabolic complications in diabetes. Diabetes in America, 2, 283-291.

Bruginski, D., Précoma, DB, Sabbag, A., i Olandowski, M. (2019). Wpływ zmienności glikemicznej i hipoglikemii na śmiertelność i długość pobytu szpitalnego wśród pacjentów w podeszłym wieku w Brazylii. Aktualne recenzje cukrzycy .

Zalecenia kliniczne dotyczące postępowania u chorych na cukrzycę 2010 — część trzecia (wybór); Stanowisko Polskiego Towarzystwa Diabetologicznego; Przedrukowano z: Zalecenia kliniczne dotyczące postępowania u chorych na cukrzycę 2010. Diabetologia Praktyczna 2010; 11 (supl. A)

Desilles, JP, Meseguer, E., Labreuche, J., Lapergue, B., Sirimarco, G., Gonzalez-Valcarcel, J., ... i Amarenco, P. (2013). Cukrzyca, glukoza przyjęciowa i wyniki po trombolizie udaru mózgu: rejestr i przegląd systematyczny. Stroke , 44 (7), 1915-1923.

Diabetologicznego, S. P. T. (2011). Zalecenia kliniczne dotyczące postępowania u chorych na cukrzycę. Diab Dośw I Klin, 11.

Schroer, W. C., LeMarr, A. R., Mills, K., Childress, A. L., Morton, D. J., & Reedy, M. E. (2019). 2019 Chitranjan S. Ranawat Award: Elective joint arthroplasty outcomes improve in malnourished patients with nutritional intervention: a prospective population analysis demonstrates a modifiable risk factor. The bone & joint journal, 101(7_Supple_C), 17-21.

American Diabetes Association (2015). Standardy opieki medycznej w cukrzycy-2015 skrócone dla placówek podstawowej opieki zdrowotnej. Cukrzyca kliniczna: publikacja American Diabetes Association , 33 (2), 97–111. doi: 10.2337 / diaclin.33.2.97

American Diabetes Association, Pharmacologic Approaches to Glycemic Treatment: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2018 Care 2018 Jan; 41(Supplement 1): S73-S85

Stratton, IM, Adler, AI, Neil, HA, Matthews, DR, Manley, SE, Cull, CA,… Holman, RR (2000). Związek glikemii z powikłaniami makronaczyniowymi i mikronaczyniowymi cukrzycy typu 2 (UKPDS 35): prospektywne badanie obserwacyjne. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) , 321 (7258), 405–412. doi: 10.1136 / bmj.321.7258.405

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group, Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34), The Lancet, Volume 352, Issue 9131, 12 September 1998, Pages 854-865

Abdul-Ghani M., DeFronzo R. A., Del Prato S., Chilton R., Singh R., Ryder R. E. J., Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes: Has the Dawn of a New Era Arrived?, Diabetes Care 2017 Jul; 40(7): 813-820

Singh, N., Armstrong, D. G., & Lipsky, B. A. (2005). Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Jama, 293(2), 217-228.

Kuziemski, K., Słomiński, W., & Jassem, E. (2019). Impact of diabetes mellitus on functional exercise capacity and pulmonary functions in patients with diabetes and healthy persons. BMC endocrine disorders, 19(1), 2.

Alsolami, A. A., Alshali, K. Z., Albeshri, M. A., Alhassan, S. H., Qazli, A. M., Almalki, A. S., … Mukhtar, A. M. (2018). Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism: a case-control study. International journal of general medicine, 11, 457–461. doi:10.2147/IJGM.S179205

Van Eetvelde, B. L., Cambier, D., Vanden Wyngaert, K., Celie, B., & Calders, P. (2018). The Influence of Clinically Diagnosed Neuropathy on Respiratory Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of diabetes research, 2018.

Li, J., Qiu, P., Wang, S., Wu, J., He, Q., Li, K., & Xu, L. (2019). β-N-Oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid from Panax notoginseng plays a major role in the treatment of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 114, 108801.

Uchida, J., Kosoku, A., Kabei, K., Nishide, S., Shimada, H., Iwai, T., … Nakatani, T. (2019). Clinical Outcomes of ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation in Patients with End-Stage Kidney Disease due to Diabetes Nephropathy. Urologia internationalis, 102(3), 341–347. doi:10.1159/000496029

Jomaa, W., El Mhamdi, S., Ali, I. B., Azaiez, M. A., El Hraiech, A., Hamda, K. B., & Maatouk, F. (2018). Prognostic value of hyperglycemia on-admission in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction in Tunisia. Indian heart journal, 70(6), 772-776.

Sajovic, J., Cilenšek, I., Mankoč, S., Tajnšek, Š., Kunej, T., Petrovič, D., & Petrovič, M. G. (2019). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related polymorphisms rs10738760 and rs6921438 are not risk factors for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences, 19(1), 94.

Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century World J. Diabetes. 2015 Jun 25; 6(6): 850–867.

Gestational diabetes mellitus in five ethnic groups: a comparison of their clinical characteristics. Diabet Med. 2012 Mar;29(3):366-71.

Population-Based Study of Diabetes and Risk Characteristics in Turkey results of the Turkish Diabetes Epidemiology Study (TURDEP) Diabetes Care 2002 Sep; 25(9): 1551-1556.

Diabetes medications related to an increased risk of falls and fall-related morbidity in the elderly Helen D Berlie, Candice L Garwood Annals of pharmacotherapy 44 (4), 712-717, 2010.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3386702

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/search?search&searchCategory=WORK&filter.inJournal=36616

POL-index 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-32a319c5-a850-4f44-ba70-1418a6087655

BASE 2011 - 2014

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=Journal+of+Health+Sciences+%28Radom%29&type=all&oaboost=1&ling=1&name=&thes=&refid=dcrespl&newsearch=1

http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/issue/archive

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101679844

Find a library that holds this journal: http://worldcat.org/issn/23918306

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/journals/49068

POL-index

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-c39c8169-88d2-45db-9e7f-d948ce9981c4

BASE

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?join=AND&bool0[]=AND&lookfor0[]=2391-8306&type0[]=all&page=11&l=pl&oaboost=1&refid=dcpagepl

Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2  www.ukw.edu.pl Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=485984

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.

http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/Journal+of+Education+Health+and+Sport,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase Index.com.

Website: www.infobaseindex.com

Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (http://www.uifactor.org/AppliedJournals.aspx)

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/journals/36616)

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ) http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski

(http://www1.bg.us.edu.pl/bazy/czasopisma/czasop_full.asp?id=3595)