The balance of pressor and depressor substances in the neurons of arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus in etiologically different arterial hypertension

S. V. Tishchenko


It has been proved that arterial hypertension is not associated exclusively with an increase in vascular tone but also with a complex of pathological processes that results in cardiovascular pathology and lesions of the target organs. The central and peripheral contours of blood pressure regulation are well studied. Nevertheless, despite the presence of two regulatory contours the key structure that integrates and controls their function is the hypothalamus, in particular its arcuate nucleus. It is proved that the effectiveness of blood pressure regulation depends on those neuromodulators and neurohormones that are synthesized in the hypothalamus or transported to it. The most important neurohormones in the regulation of arterial blood presssure are brain natriuretic peptide, β-endorphin, neurotensin and angiotensin II. Equally important factor is the functional state of arcuate nucleus neurons, which depends on adequate blood supply, innervation and inter-neuronal relationships. The link between the above described processes is nitrogen monoxide system (NOS) and its universal messenger – nitric oxide NO.
The purpose of the work was to determine the nature of the balance of pressor (angiotensin II and neurotensin) and depressor (brain natriuretic peptide and β-endorphin) neurohormones in the neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the ratio of NOS isoforms with hypertension of different etiology.
Materials and methods. The studies were conducted on 32 mature male Wistar rats and 16 male spontaneously hypertensive rats. To study the content of neuropeptides and NOS enzyme isoforms, an immunohistochemical method was used, followed by digital image processing by Image J. The results that were obtained were calculated using the "Statistica 11.0" program.
1. The same changes of neuropeptides’ content in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are observed in the rats with arterial hypertension which are characterized by a decrease in the brain natriuretic peptide, β-endorphin and angiotensin II content with a significant increase in neurotensin content regardless of arterial hypertension etiology and pathogenesis. The peculiarities of the balance between depressor and pressor substances depend on the etiopathogenetic mechanisms – with the endocrine-salt model of arterial hypertension there is a significant predominance of depressor neuropeptides (in 4.3 times) whereas in essential hypertension this balance is similar to the control.
2. The changes of the NOS isoform ratio in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus are unidirectional, both with endocrine-salt model of arterial hypertension and essential hypertension – the content of eNOS decreases while nNOS and iNOS content increases.


hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, neuropeptides, nitric oxide, rats, arterial hypertension

Full Text:



Mozaffarian D., Benjamin E.J. (2015). Heart disease and stroke statistics-2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 4, pp. 29–322.

Kawabe, T., Kawabe, K. and Sapru, H. (2012). Cardiovascular Responses to Chemical Stimulation of the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus in the Rat: Role of the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus. PLoS ONE, 7(9), p.e45180.

Iellamo, F. (2001). Neural mechanisms of cardiovascular regulation during exercise. Autonomic Neuroscience, 90 (2), 66-75. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.01144.2010

McKinley, M., Albiston, A., Allen, A., Mathai, M., May, C., McAllen, R., Oldfield, B., Mendelsohn, F. and Chai, S. (2003). The brain renin–angiotensin system: location and physiological roles. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 35(6), 901-918.

Chronwall, B. (1985). Anatomy and physiology of the neuroendocrine arcuate nucleus. Peptides, (6), 1-11. 10. doi: 1016/0196-9781(85)90128-7.

Murphy, B., Fioramonti, X., Jochnowitz, N., Fakira, K., Gagen, K., & Contie, S. et al. (2009). Fasting enhances the response of arcuate neuropeptide Y-glucose-inhibited neurons to decreased extracellular glucose. American Journal Of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 296(4), C746-C756. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00641.2008

Hsuchou, H., He, Y., Kastin, A., Tu, H., Markadakis, E., & Rogers, R. et al. (2008). Obesity induces functional astrocytic leptin receptors in hypothalamus. Brain, 132(4), 889-902. doi: 10.1093/brain/awp029

Peruzzo, B., Pastor, F.E, Blazquez, J.L. (2004). Polarized endocytosis and transcytosis in the hypothalamic tanycytes of therat. Cell Tissue Res. (2), 147–164. doi:10.1007/s00441-004-0899-1.

Nicole K., Justin L. Grobe. (2013) Hypertension in mice with transgenic activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system is vasopressin dependent. Physiology Publisher, 304,(10).

Forstermann, U. & Sessa, W. (2011). Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function. European Heart Journal, 33(7), 829-837.

Wang, Y. & Golledge, J. (2012). Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Neurovascular and Metabolic Systems. Current Neurovascular Research, 10(1), 81-89.

Brown, G. & Neher, J. (2010). Inflammatory Neurodegeneration and Mechanisms of Microglial Killing of Neurons. Molecular Neurobiology, 41(2-3), 242-247.

Norstrom, A., Hansson, H., & Sjostrand, J. (1971). Effects of colchicine on axonal transport and ultrastructure of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system of the rat. Zeitschrift for Zellforschung Und Mikroskopische Anatomie, 113 (2), 271-293.

Kolesnyk, Y., Gancheva, O., & Tishchenko, S. (2017). The pattern of the NOS isoforms expression in arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus in experimental hypertension. Pathologia, 0(1). doi: 10.14739/2310-1237.2017.1.97790 ( in Ukrainian)

Hancheva, O., Tishсhenko, S., & Ivanenko, T. (2018). Quantitative characteristics of the neurotensin content in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in arterial hypertension of different etiologies. Pathologia, 0(2). doi: 10.14739/2310-1237.2018.2.141399 ( in Ukrainian)

Tishсhenko, S. (2018). Features of angiotensin II expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of experimental rats with arterial hypertension of various etiology. Pathologia, 0(3). doi: 10.14739/2310-1237.2018.3.151864

Paxinos, G., Watson, C., & Emson, P. (1980). AChE-stained horizontal sections of the rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates. Journal Of Neuroscience Methods, 3(2), 129-149. doi: 10.1016/0165-0270(80)90021-7

Lee, J., Bae, E., Ma, S., & Kim, S. (2016). Altered Nitric Oxide System in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases. Chonnam Medical Journal, 52(2), 81. doi: 10.4068/cmj.2016.52.2.81

Gerasimova A. S, Oleinikov VE (2008). Arterial hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome: features of the course and lesion of target organs. Medical sciences. Literature Reviews, 3 (in Russia).

Böger, R. (2004). Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, an Endogenous Inhibitor of Nitric Oxide Synthase, Explains the “L-Arginine Paradox” and Acts as a Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factor. The Journal Of Nutrition, 134(10), 2842S-2847S. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.10.2842s

Aleksinskaya, M., van Faassen, E., Nelissen, J., Janssen, B., De Mey, J., & Hanemaaijer, R. et al. (2013). Identification of Free Nitric Oxide Radicals in Rat Bone Marrow: Implications for Progenitor Cell Mobilization in Hypertension. Plos ONE, 8(3), e57761. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057761

Ku, Y. (2006). Role of limbic peptidergic circuits in regulation of arterial pressure, relevant to development of essential hypertension. Neuropeptides, 40(5), 299-308. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2006.05.001

Sumners, C., Phillips, M., & Richards, E. (1982). Central pressor action of neurotensin in conscious rats. Hypertension, 4(6), 888-893. doi: 10.1161/01.hyp.4.6.888



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 © The Author (s) 2019

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski