Transgender people and sports

Ewelina Kamasz

Abstract


The essence of sport and fair play is predicated on the assumption that individuals must fall in with one of the preordained categories of female or male. To compete as an athlete, individuals must align themselves as female or male and join the corresponding team. This is not a difficult task for a cisgender person but a transgender one is inevitably going to face unique challenges posed by this binary or dualistic view of sex.
This paper considers the precarious situation of transgender athletes and their extraordinary body self-narratives. I review sport policies and the enforcement of the woman’s and man’s category in sport. I present the barriers and facilitators of physical activity and sport participation among young, transitioning adults. Finally, I would like to muse over the ethis of inclusion of transgender and intersex athletes into a mainstream sport and I discuss whether and on which conditions should transwomen be permitted in female categories in sports.

Keywords


transgender, intersex, gender, inclusion, sport

Full Text:

PDF

References


Wylie K, Barrett J, Besser M, et al. Good practice guidelines for the assessment and treatment of adults with gender dysphoria. Sex Relatsh Ther. 2012; 29: 154–214.

Jones, B. A., Arcelus, J., Bouman, W.P., Emma Haycraft. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies. Sports Medicine. 2016; 47(4): 701-716.

Kuyper L, Wijsen C. Gender identities and gender dysphoria in the Netherlands. Arch Sex Behav. 2014;43(2):377–85.

Bouman WP, de Vries AL, T’Sjoen G. Gender dysphoria and gender incongruence: an evolving inter-disciplinary field. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2016;28(1):1–4.

Aitken M, Steensma TD, Blanchard R, et al. Evidence for an altered sex ratio in clinic-referred adolescents with gender dysphoria. J Sex Med. 2015;12(3):756–63.

Ellis SJ, McNeil J, Bailey L. Gender, stage of transition and situational avoidance: a UK study of trans people’s experiences. Sex Relatsh Ther. 2014;29(3):351–64.

Dhejne C, Lichtenstein P, Boman M, et al. Long-term follow-up of transsexual persons undergoing sex reassignment surgery: cohort study in Sweden. PLoS One. 2011;6(2):e16885.

Coleman E, Bockting W, Botzer M, et al. Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming people, version 7. Int J Transgend. 2012;13:165–232.

Fausto-Sterling, Anne (2000) Sexing the Body . New York: Basic Books.MLA

Del Boca, F.K. (2016). Addressing sex and gender inequities in scientific research and publishing. Addiction 111(8), 1323-1325. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13269

Brown, M.L., Rounsley, C.A. (1996). True selves: Understanding transexualism – for families, friends, coworkers, and helping professionals. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

American Psychological Association & National Association of School Psychologists. (2015). Resolution on gender and sexual orientation diversity in children and adolescents in schools. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/about/policy/orie ntation-diversity.aspx

American Psychological Association. (2015). APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association. (2012). Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. American Psychologist, 67(1), 10–42. doi: 10.1037/a0024659

American Psychological Association. (2015). Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming People. American Psychologist, 70(9), 832-864. doi.org/10.1037/a0039906

Rivers, I. 2000. Social exclusion, absenteeism and sexual minority youth. Support for Learning, 15(1): 15–8.

Meier, S.C., Labuski, C.M. (2013). The Demographics of the Transgender Population. [In:] A.K. Baumle (eds), International Handbook on the Demography of Sexuality. Houston, TX: Springer.

Mayer, K.H., Bradford, J.B., Makadon, H.J., Stall, R., Goldhammer, H., & Landers, S. (2008). Sexual and gender minority health: What we know and what needs to be done. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 989-995.

Jackson, P.A. (2013). Thai (trans)genders and (homo)sexualities in a global context. [In:] A.K. Baumle (eds), International Handbook on the Demography of Sexuality. Houston, TX: Springer.

Stryker, S. (2006). (De)Subjugated knowledges: An introduction to transgender studies. [In:] S. Stryker & S. Whittle (Eds.), The transgender studies reader (pp. 1-20), New York: Routledge

Namaste, V. (2000). Invisible lives: The erasure of transsexual and transgender people.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Durso, L.E., Gates, G.J. (2013). Best Practices: Collecting and Analyzing Data on Sexual Minorities. [In:] A.K. Baumle (eds), International Handbook on the Demography of Sexuality. Houston, TX: Springer.

Roberts, B. (2008). Invisible difference in space: The role of different spaces in homophobic bullying in schools. Journal of LGBT Youth, 5, 11-33.

A. P. Haas, P. L. Rodgers, J. L. Herman, Suicide Attempts among Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Adults. Findings Of The National Transgender Discrimination Survey, 2014, http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/ uploads/AFSP-Williams-Suicide-Report-Final.pdf

Dynarski, W., Jąderek, I., Kłonkowska, A. (2016). Transpłciowa młodzież w polskiej szkole. Raport z badan. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego.

Griffin, P. (2012). LGBT equality in sports: Celebrating our successes and facing our challenges. In G. B. Cunningham (Ed.), Sexual orientation and gender identity in sport: Essays from activists, coaches, and scholars (pp. 1-12). College Station, TX: Center for Sport Management Research and Education.

Rader, B. G. (2004). American sports: From the age of folk games to the age of televised sports. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Krane, V., Barak, K. S., & Mann, M. E. (2012). Broken binaries and transgender athletes: Challenging sex and gender in sports. In:G. B. Cunningham (Ed.), Sexual orientation and gender identity in sport: Essays from activists, coaches, and scholars (pp. 13-22). College Station, TX: Center for Sport Management Research and Education.

Carrol, H.J. (2014). Joining the team. The inclusion of transgender studentes in United States school-based athletics. In: J., Hargreaves, E. Anderson (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Sport, Gender and Sexuality (pp.367-375). London and New York: Routledge.

Heggie, V. (2014). Subjective sex: science, medicine and sex tests in sports. In: J., Hargreaves, E. Anderson (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Sport, Gender and Sexuality (pp.339-347). London and New York: Routledge.

Love, A. (2014). Transgender exclusion and inclusion in sport. . In: J., Hargreaves, E. Anderson (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Sport, Gender and Sexuality (pp.376-383). London and New York: Routledge.

Jones, B.A., Arcelus, J., Boumann, W.P., Haycraft, E. (2016). Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies. Sports Medicine, 47 (4), pp. 701-716.

International Olympic Committee. IOC approves consensus with regard to athletes who have changed sex. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/content/news/media-resources/manual-news/1999-2009/2004/05/17/ioc-approves-consensus-with-regard-toathletes-who-have-changed-sex/.

International Olympic Committee. IOC consensus meeting on sex reassignment and hyperandrogenism. Available from: http:// www.olympic.org/Documents/Commissions_PDFfiles/Medical_commission/2015-11_ioc_consensus_meeting_on_sex_reassignment_and_hyperandrogenism-en.pdf


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Ewelina Kamasz

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/search?search&searchCategory=WORK&filter.inJournal=36616

POL-index 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-32a319c5-a850-4f44-ba70-1418a6087655

BASE 2011 - 2014

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=Journal+of+Health+Sciences+%28Radom%29&type=all&oaboost=1&ling=1&name=&thes=&refid=dcrespl&newsearch=1

http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/issue/archive

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101679844

Find a library that holds this journal: http://worldcat.org/issn/23918306

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/journals/49068

POL-index

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-c39c8169-88d2-45db-9e7f-d948ce9981c4

BASE

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?join=AND&bool0[]=AND&lookfor0[]=2391-8306&type0[]=all&page=11&l=pl&oaboost=1&refid=dcpagepl

Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2  www.ukw.edu.pl Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=485984

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.

http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/Journal+of+Education+Health+and+Sport,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase Index.com.

Website: www.infobaseindex.com

Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (http://www.uifactor.org/AppliedJournals.aspx)

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/journals/36616)

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ) http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski

(http://www1.bg.us.edu.pl/bazy/czasopisma/czasop_full.asp?id=3595)