An assessment of the impact of physical activity undertaken by patients with gestational diabetes mellitus on neonatal birth weight

Agata Maziarz, Jarosław Ogonowski, Aleksandra Szylińska, Adrian Wiatrak, Agnieszka Turoń-Skrzypińska, Iwona Rotter


Recent years have seen a growing interest in the physical activity of pregnant patients and its effects on obstetric outcomes. Apart from its positive influence on healthy pregnant patients, moderate physical effort also plays an important role in therapeutic procedures in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. The aim of this paper was to assess the link between daily physical activity of patients diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and neonatal birth weight.
Material, patients and methods-
The study group included 100 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between 26 and 32 weeks’ gestation. Their physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) and a pedometer.
No significant correlation between neonatal birth weight and the parameters describing the type and intensity of physical activity was shown. Neonatal birth weight correlated positively with pregravid BMI of the pregnant patient. A negative correlation was identified between gestational weight gain and pregravid BMI.
There was no relationship between daily physical activity during pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus and neonatal birth weight. Maternal pregravid weight was found to be an important parameter affecting the infant’s weight.


birth weight; physical activity; gestational diabetes mellitus

Full Text:



World Health Organization (WHO) (2014). Diagnostic criteria and classification of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 103(3): 341-63.

Wallace S, McEwan A (2007). Fetal macrosomia. Obstetrics, Gynaecology And Reproductive Medicine, 17(2): 58-61.

Sørensen HT, Sabroe S, Rothman KJ, Gillman M, Fischer P, Sørensen TI (1997). Relation between weight and length at birth and body mass index in young adulthood: cohort study. BMJ, 315(7116): 1137.

Wei JN, Sung FC, Li CY, et al. (2003). Low birth weight and high birth weight infants are both at an increased risk to have type 2 diabetes among schoolchildren in Taiwan. Diabetes Care, 26: 343–8.

Hermann GM, Dallas LM, Haskell SE, Roghair RD (2010). Neonatal macrosomia is an independent risk factor for adult metabolic syndrome. Neonatology, 98: 238–44.

Santangeli L, Sattar N, Huda SS (2015). Impact of maternal obesity on perinatal and childhood outcomes. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, 29(3): 438-48

Monte S, Valenti O, Giorgio E, Renda E, Hysen Ei, Faraci M et al. (2011). Maternal weight gain during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight: a review of the literature. J Prenat Med. 5(2): 27–30.

Metzger BE, Lowe LP, Dyer AR, Trimble ER, Chaovarindr U, Coustan DR et al. (2008). HAPO Study Cooperative Research Group: Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med, 358(19): 1991-2002.

Cleary-Goldman J, Malone FD, Vidaver J, Ball RH, Nyberg DA, Comstock CH et al. (2005). Impact of Maternal Age on Obstetric Outcome. Obstet Gynecol, (5 Pt 1):983-90.

Chawla R, Badon SE, Rangarajan J, Reisetter AC, Armstrong LL, Lowe LP et al. (2014). Genetic risk score for prediction of newborn adiposity and large-for-gestational-age birth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 99(11): E2377-86.

Koyanagi A, Zhang J, Dagvadorj A, et al. (2013). Macrosomia in 23 developing countries: an analysis of a multicountry, facility-based, cross-sectional survey. Lancet, 381: 476–83.

Ahlsson F, Gustafsson J, Tuvemo T, Lundgren M (2007). Females born large for gestational age have a doubled risk of giving birth to large for gestational age infants. Acta Paediatr, 96(3): 358-62.

Tavares M, Rodrigues T, Cardoso F, Barros H, Leite LP (1996). Independent effect of maternal birth weight on infant birth weight. J Perinat Med, 24(4): 391-6.

Walsh JM, McAuliffe FM (2012). Prediction and prevention of the macrosomic fetus. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 162(2): 125-30.

Kgosidialwa O, Egan AM, Carmody L, Kirwan B, Gunning P, Dunne FP (2015). Treatment With Diet and Exercise for Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosed Using IADPSG Criteria. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 100(12): 4629-36.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologogists (2015). Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period. Committee Opinion Number 650. ACOG. Obstet Gynecol, 126: e135–42.

Duncome D, Skouteris H, Wertheim EH, Kelly L, Fraser V, Paxton SJ (2006). Vigorous exercise and birth outcomes in a sample of recreational exercisers, A prospective study across pregnancy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 46: 288-292.

Barakat R, Lucia A, Ruiz JR (2009). Resistance exercise training during pregnancy and newborn's birth size: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Obes (Lond), 33(9): 1048-57.

Ehrenberg HM, Mercer BM, Catalano PM (2004). The influence of obesity and diabetes on the prevalence of macrosomia. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 191(3): 964-8.

Haakstad LA, K (2011). Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 11: 66.

Reid EW, McNeill JA, Alderdice FA, Tully MA, Holmes VA (2014). Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and fetal macrosomia in uncomplicated pregnancies: a prospective cohort study. Midwifery, 30(12): 1202-9.

Melzer K, Schutz Y, Soehnchen N, Othenin-Girard V, Martinez de Tejada B, Irion O (2010). Effects of recommended levels of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 202(3): 266.e1-6.

Shapiro C, Sutija VG, Bush J (2000). Effect of maternal weight gain on infant birth weight. J Perinat Med, 28(6): 428-31.

Simmons D, Jelsma JG, Galjaard S, Devlieger R, van Assche A, Jans G et al. (2015). Results From a European Multicenter Randomized Trial of Physical Activity and/or Healthy Eating to Reduce the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The DALI Lifestyle Pilot. Diabetes Care, 38(9): 1650-6.

Colberg SR, Castorino K, Jovanovič L (2013). Prescribing physical activity to prevent and manage gestational diabetes. World J Diabetes, 4(6): 256-62.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski