Knowledge of Hormonal Contraception Among Young Women in Poland

Renata Paprocka, Julita Binder, Magdalena Weber-Rajek


Introduction. Hormonal contraception could activate wide range of biological effects in women body and what’s important these pharmaceuticals are often used for long time. The aim of this study was to examine the level of knowledge among young women studying on the universities of Bydgoszcz (Poland) about the health effects of hormonal contraception. Materials and Methods. 172 women aged from 18 to over 25 years (the majority of respondents were in the age 21-24 years) were assessed with original anonymous questionnaire. Results. The state of knowledge of young women concerning negative aspects of using contraception differs depending on field of study. The awareness of women using contraception was higher than women which didn’t use hormonal contraception. Conclusion. General state of knowledge of studied women concerning using hormonal contraception was not satisfactory. Especially alarming is ignorance of health threads connected with using hormonal contraception among women using this method of contraception.


contraception, young women, students

Full Text:




Berglund SE, Lundberg O, Kopp KH, Gemzell DK, Trussell J, Scherwitzl R. Perfect-use and typical-use Pearl Index of a contraceptive mobile app. Contraception, 2017, 96, 420-425.

Bosetti C, Negri E, Trichopoulos D, Franceschi S , Beral V, Tzonou A et al. Long-term effects of oral contraceptives on ovarian cancer risk. Int. J. Cancer., 2002, 102, 262-5.

Connolly TJ, Zuckerman AL, Contraception in the patient with liver disease. Semin Perinatol. 1998, 22, 178-82.

Cortés ME, Alfaro AA. The Effects of Hormonal Contraceptives on Glycemic Regulation, Linacre Q. 2014, 81, 209–218.

de Bastos M, Stegeman BH, Rosendaal FR, Van Hylckama VA, Helmerhorst FM, Stijnen T et al. Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis, Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 2014, 3, CD010813.

Farley TM, Meirik O, Chang CL, Poulter NR. Combined Oral Contraceptives, Smoking, and Cardiovascular Risk. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 1998, 52, 775–785.

Gerlinger, C., Trussell, J., Mellinger, U., Merz, M., Marr, J., Bannemerschult, R., et al. Different Pearl Indices in studies of hormonal contraceptives in the United States: impact of study population. Contraception. 2014, 90, 142-6.

Kulkarni J, Liew J, Garland KA. Depression associated with combined oral contraceptives - a pilot study. Aust. Fam. Physician., 2005, 34, 990.

Larsson-Cohn U. Oral contraceptives and vitamins: A review. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 1975, 121, 84-90.

Levi F, La Vecchia C, Gulie C, Negri E, Monnier V, Franceschi S et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer Causes Control., 1991, 2, 99-103.

Lima AC, Martins LC, Lopes MVO, Araújo TL, Lima FET, Aquino PS et al. Influence of hormonal contraceptives and the occurrence of stroke: integrative review. Rev. Bras. Enferm., 2017, 70, 647-55.

Maguire K, Westhoff C. The state of hormonal contraception today: established and emerging noncontraceptive health benefits. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 2011, 205, S4-8.

Mørch LS, Skovlund CW, Hannaford PC, Iversen L, Fielding S, Lidegaard Ø. Contemporary Hormonal Contraception and the Risk of Breast Cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 2017, 377, 2228-2239.

Poller L. Relation between oral contraceptive hormones and blood clotting, J. Clin. Pathol., Suppl. 1969, 3, 67–74.

Resnik S. Melasma induced by oral contraceptive drugs, JAMA. 1967, 199, 601-5

Sacco S, Merki-Feld GS, Ægidius KL, Bitzer J, Canonico M, Kurth T, et al. Hormonal contraceptives and risk of ischemic stroke in women with migraine: a consensus statement from the European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESC), J. Headache Pain., 2017, 18, 108.

Shen Q, Lin D, Jiang X, Zhang Z, Blood pressure changes and hormonal contraceptives. Contraception. 1994, 50, 131-41.

Tanis BC. Oral contraceptives and the risk of myocardial infarction, Eur. Heart J., 2003, 24, 377–380.

Vessey MP, Villard-Mackintosh L, Painter R. Oral contraceptives and pregnancy in relation to peptic ulcer. Contraception, 1992, 46, 349-57.

Westhoff CL, Pike MC. Hormonal contraception and breast cancer. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 2018, S0002-9378(18)30247-3.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 © The Authors

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski