Main causes of homelessness and adaptation of homeless to environmental factors

Marta Sarnowska, Sonia Gach


The problem of homelessness occurs in every country in the world, regardless of the type of governance, economic situation or cultural tradition. At the turn of the 1980s, there were socio-economic changes in Poland and the marketization of the economy, which resulted in the collapse of the economy and the liquidation of a number of enterprises, resulting in numerous redundancies. In addition, there were changes to the housing law, which involved the possibility of eviction. As a result of the above changes, i.e. the loss of permanent work and subsequent threats of evictions from rented premises and the inability to deal with the new economic situation, a homeless group was formed. The aim of the field research, at a randomly selected group of 10 homeless people, was to assess the quality of life of these people. This group did not have a permanent place of residence and did not use shelters, night shelters or social care homes. The research was carried in the city of Wrocław, Duszniki Zdrój, Kłodzko and the Szczytna commune. The study group was in the 35-71 age range, the research was carried out on the terrain, ie the natural environment of individual subjects. The examined persons had vocational and basic education. The study contains the results of qualitative research based on the well-grounded theory, thanks to which the hypotheses were created during the research, which allowed for in-depth analysis of the conducted conversations and observations as well as participant observation. The results of the study showed that 7 homeless people indicate dependence on the previous system for the main cause of homelessness. Along with political and economic changes, they lost their jobs and shelter (they lived in the State Farms and workers' hotels). This is not the only cause, but the most accented. They also show great adaptability in relation to environmental, housing and nutritional conditions, showing resistance to both infectious and systemic diseases.


causes of homelessness; health of the homeless; homelessness

Full Text:



Białas A., Problem bezdomności w kontekście przeobrażeń społecznych, ekonomicznych

i politycznych w Polsce po roku 1989 Auxilium Sociale. 2001.

A. Nowakowska, Społeczne postrzeganie bezdomności. Zjawisko stereotypizacji [w:]

Oblicza bezdomności, red. M. Dębski, K. Stachura, Uniwersytet Gdański, Gdańsk 2008.

_wstepna_analiza_wynikow_badania_ankietowego.pdf (23.09.2011).

J. Woźniczka, Niestereotypowo o stereotypach, czyli projekt edukacyjny „Nieobojętni”

[w:] Pomost O bezdomności bez lęku, Pismo Samopomocy, Gdańsk 2006.

M.Porowski, Bezdomność-obraz zjawiska i populacja osób badanych,[w:] pedagogika

społeczna, red., T. Pilch, L. Lepczyk, Warszawa 1998, s.436.

A. Przymeński, bezdomność jako kwestia społeczna…,s. 107.

Więcej na stronie MPiPS ( 5.03.2011).

J. Śledzianowski, Przyczyny bezdomności spowodowane dysfunkcjonalnością rodziny

[w:] Bezdomność, Roczniki Naukowe Caritas, 1997, Rok I, s. 5.

[9] Informacje znajdujące się na stronach internetowych Ministerstwa Spraw Wewnętrznych i

Administracji –




Dane statystyczne o bezdomności w Polsce Raport dla Europejskiego Obserwatorium

Bezdomności FEANTSA Julia Wygnańska, Narodowy Korespondent Europejskiego

Obserwatorium Bezdomności.

S. Kozłowski, Granice przystosowania. Wydawnictwo Wiedza Powszechna 1986.

I. Całkosiński, A. Gamian, J. Kobierska-Brzoza i wsp.: The Influence of Variable

Environmental Factors on human’s organism adaptive ability. Adv Clin Exp Med 2009,

I. Całkosiński, A. Gamian, J. Kobierska-Brzoza i wsp.: The Influence of Variable

Environmental Factors on human’s organism adaptive ability. Adv Clin Exp Med 2009,

T. Konecki, Teoria ugruntowana a kontekst odkrycia. Naturalna historia pewnego




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski