What affects the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease? Overview of risk factors

Jakub Husejko, Monika Prylińska, Natalia Skierkowska, Daria Bieniek, Piotr Walkowski, Dorota Szewczak, Alicja Wycech, Karolina Matulewicz, Małgorzata Gajos, Weronika Topka, Agnieszka Kujawska, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska

Abstract


Introduction: Alzheimer's disease is currently one of the key challenges of medicine, due to the growing number of cases every year, especially in developed countries. It is characterized by disorders of episodic memory and specific neuropathological changes.
Knowledge of risk factors allows for early prevention of the disease and gives the opportunity to delay the appearance of symptoms. Among them are: genetic factors, diet, dietary supplements, cardiovascular system, education and social involvement, and traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Material and Methods: The paper reviews literature using the EBSCO and Google Scholar databases. Articles have been analyzed using the keywords Alzheimer's disease, supplements, risk factors, oxidative stress, cardiovascular system, TBI. The article presents potential risk of health and social factors affecting the development of AD.
Results: The results show that one of the main risk factors are genetic factors, e.g. mutations in the presynilin 1 and presynilin 2 genes. The effect of many factors is oxidative stress, which should be minimized by a diet rich in antioxidants, including vitamins C, E and β- carotene and from group B and additionally supplement it with vitamin D supplement. It is also very important to properly operate the blood-brain barrier transporters, e.g. GLUT1. Studies have shown that β-amyloid accumulation, characteristic of AD, was noted a few hours after the onset of TBI, especially among men. Psychological and social observations, which indicate lower risk of AD in case of mentally and socially active people, can not be overlooked.
Conclusions: The factors presented in the article are very numerous, which indicates the fact that there are many disorders that may influence the development of Alzheimer's disease to a greater or lesser degree, however the most important are the genetic factors and antioxidant deficiencies causing oxidative stress. The search for new factors causing the growing incidence of AD is important not only for social reasons, but also for economic reasons, due to the very costly care of the patient.

Keywords


Alzheimer's disease; supplements; risk factors; oxidative stress; cardiovascular system; TBI.

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References


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