Chocolate protects a heart and vessels

Małgorzata Chudzińska, Jarosław Pietrzak, Magdalena Węglarz, Łukasz Wołowiec, Daniel Rogowicz, Walery Zukow, Władysław Sinkiewicz

Abstract


A healthy diet plays a key role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis and its complications are nowadays one of the leading causes of death in the western population. Among numerous factors known for slowing down the progression of the disease is the consumption of vegetables, fruits and chocolate rich in multiring compounds called polyphenols. Chocolate is a source of catechins, epicatechins and procyanidins. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of dark chocolate in management of hypertension  by hypotensive effect associated with vasorelaxation mediated most likely by the stimulation of nitric oxide production in the vascular wall. Cocoa and its derivatives have also strong antioxidative properties resulting in enhancement of the  total antioxidant potential and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. It was also demonstrated that cocoa polyphenols have a favourable antithrombotic effect connected with the inhibition of platelet activation. Chocolate may diminish insulin resistance and inhibit inflammatory process. Cocoa improves also psychical well being. This pleiotropic activity of cocoa results in slowing down the progression and limiting the complications of atherosclerosis in regular chocolate consumers.


Keywords


chocolate, cocoa, atherosclerosis, pleiotropic activity.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Castell M., Ruiz S., Lagunas M. Second International Congress on Chocolate and Cocoa in Medicine. Barcelona 2015. Nutrients. 2015; 7(12): 9785-9803.

Kerimi A, Williamson G. Cardiovascular benefits of dark chocolate. Vascul Pharmacol. 2015 Aug;71:11-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vph.2015.05.011. Review.

Hertog MG., Feskens EJ., Hollman PC. i wsp.: Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 1993; 342: 1007-11.

Yusuf S., Hawken S., Ounpuu S. i wsp. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004; 364: 937-52.

Mink PJ., Scrafford CG., Barraj LM. i wsp. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85: 895-909.

Afoakwa EO., Paterson A., Fowler M., Ryan A. Flavor formation and character in cocoa and chocolate: a critical review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008; 48: 840-57.

Steinberg FM., Bearden MM., Keen CL. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 215-23.

Hooper L, Kroon PA, Rimm EB, Cohn JS, Harvey I, Le Cornu KA, et al. Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:38-50.

Rusconi M., Conti A. Theobroma cacao L., the Food of the Gods: a scientific approach beyond myths and claims. Pharmacol Res. 2010; 61: 5-13.

Vlachojannis J., Erne P., Zimmermann B. i wsp. The Impact of Cocoa Flavanols on Cardiovascular Health. Phytother Res. 2016 Oct;30(10):1641-1657. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5665.

Noad RL., Rooney C., McCall D. i wsp. Eneficial effect of a polyphenol-rich diet on cardiovascular risk: a randomised control trial. Heart. 2016 Sep 1;102(17):1371-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-309218.

Serafini M., Bugianesi R., Maiani G. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate. Nature. 2003; 424: 1013.

Kris-Etherton PM., Derr JA., Seligson FH., Pearson TA. Effects of a milk chocolate bar per day substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in young men on an NCEP/AHA Step 1 Diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 60: 1037-1042.

Nabavi SF, Sureda A, Daglia M. i wsp. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2015;16(10):891-901. Review.

Hamed MS., Gambert S., Bliden KP. i wsp. Dark chocolate effect on platelet activity, C-reactive protein and lipid profile: a pilot study. South Med J. 2008; 101: 1203-8.

Fraga CG., Actis-Goretta L., Ottaviani JI. i wsp. Regular consumption of a flavanol-rich chocolate can improve oxidant stress in young soccer players. Clin Dev Immunol. 2005; 12: 11-7.

Monagas M., Khan N., Andres-Lacueva C. i wsp. Effect of cocoa powder on the modulation of inflammatory biomarkers in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 90: 1144-50.

Bordeaux B., Yanek LR., Moy TF. i wsp. Casual chocolate consumption and inhibition of platelet function. Prev Cardiol. 2007; 10: 175-80.

Pearson DA., Paglieroni TG., Rein D. i wsp. The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function. Thromb Res. 2002; 106: 191-7.

Hollenberg K. Vascular action of cocoa flavanols in humans: The Roots of the story. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006; 47: 99-102.

McCullough ML., Chevaux K., Jackson L. i wsp. Hypertension, the Kuna, and the epidemiology of flavanols. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006; 47: 103-9.

Desch S., Schmidt J., Kobler D. i wsp. Effect of cocoa products on blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens. 2010; 23: 97-103.

Dong JY, Iso H, Yamagishi K, Sawada N, Tsugane S. Chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women: A large population-based, prospective cohort study. Japan Public Health Center–based Prospective Study Group. Atherosclerosis. 2017 May;260:8-12. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis. 2017.03.004.

Taubert D., Berkels R., Roesen R., Klaus W. Chocolate and blood pressure in elderly individuals with isolated systolic hypertension. JAMA. 2003; 290: 1029-30.

Grassi D., Desideri G., Necozione S. i wsp. Blood pressure is reduced and insulin sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolate. J Nutr. 2008; 138: 1671-6.

Buijsse B., Feskens EJ., Kok FJ., Kromhout D. Cocoa intake, blood pressure, and cardiovascular mortality: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 411-7.

Heiss C., Dejam A., Kleinbongard P. i wsp. Vascular effects of cocoa rich in flavan-3-ols. JAMA. 2003; 290: 1030-1.

Faridi Z., Njike VY., Dutta S. i wsp. Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88: 58-63.

Karim M., McCormick K., Kappagoda CT. Effects of cocoa extracts on endothelium-dependent relaxation. J Nutr. 2000; 130: 2105S-8S.

Schnorr O., Brossette T., Momma TY. i wsp. Cocoa flavanols lower vascular arginase activity in human endothelial cells in vitro and in erythrocytes in vivo. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008; 476: 211-5.

Actis-Goretta L., Ottaviani JI., Fraga CG. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme activity by flavanol-rich foods. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54: 229-34.

Stoclet JC., Chataigneau T., Ndiaye M. i wsp. Vascular protection by dietary polyphenols. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004; 500: 299-313.

Hertog MG., Kromhout D., Aravanis C. i wsp. Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:381-6.

Janszky I., Mukamal KJ., Ljung R. i wsp. Chocolate consumption and mortality following a first acute myocardial infarction: the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program. J Intern Med. 2009; 266: 248-57.

Buitrago-Lopez A., Sanderson J., Johnson L. i wsp. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2011; 343: d4488. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d4488. 65.

Larsson SC., Åkesson A., Gigante B., Wolk A. Chocolate consumption and risk of myocardial infarction: a prospective study and meta-analysis. Heart. 2016 Jul 1;102(13):1017-22. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-309203.

A Rostami A, Khalili M, Haghighat N. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension. ARYA Atheroscler. 2015 Jan; 11(1): 21-9.

Matsumoto C, Petrone AB, Sesso HD, Gaziano JM, Djoussé L. Chocolate consumption and risk of diabetes mellitus in the Physicians' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Feb;101(2):362-7. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.092221.

Maier JA., Malpuech-Brugère C., Zimowska W. i wsp. Low magnesium promotes endothelial cell dysfunction: implications for atherosclerosis, inflammation and thrombosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004; 1689: 13-21.

Bruinsma K., Taren DL. Chocolate: food or drug? J Am Diet Assoc. 1999; 99: 1249-56.

Buijsse B., Weikert C., Drogan D., Bergmann M, Boeing H. Chocolate consumption in relation to blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease in German adults. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 1616-23.

Ried K., Sullivan TR., Fakler P., Frank OR., Stocks NP. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;8:CD008893.

Larsson SC, Orsini N. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:993–1001.

Kouli GM., Panagiotakos DB., Georgousopoulou EN. i wsp. Shaped relationship between habitual coffee consumption and 10-year (2002-2012)cardiovascular disease incidence: the ATTICA study. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Apr 19. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1455-6.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.885493

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/search?search&searchCategory=WORK&filter.inJournal=36616

POL-index 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-32a319c5-a850-4f44-ba70-1418a6087655

BASE 2011 - 2014

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=Journal+of+Health+Sciences+%28Radom%29&type=all&oaboost=1&ling=1&name=&thes=&refid=dcrespl&newsearch=1

http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/issue/archive

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101679844

Find a library that holds this journal: http://worldcat.org/issn/23918306

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/journals/49068

POL-index

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-c39c8169-88d2-45db-9e7f-d948ce9981c4

BASE

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?join=AND&bool0[]=AND&lookfor0[]=2391-8306&type0[]=all&page=11&l=pl&oaboost=1&refid=dcpagepl

Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2  www.ukw.edu.pl Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=485984

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.

http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/Journal+of+Education+Health+and+Sport,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase Index.com.

Website: www.infobaseindex.com

Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (http://www.uifactor.org/AppliedJournals.aspx)

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/journals/36616)

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ) http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski

(http://www1.bg.us.edu.pl/bazy/czasopisma/czasop_full.asp?id=3595)