Do former elite athletes live longer? Potential role of critical window(s) in the development of the health-oriented behaviors and physiological adaptations

Agnieszka Kujawska, Weronika Topka, Małgorzata Gajos, Joanna Androsiuk-Perkowska, Radosław Perkowski, Jakub Husejko, Agata Marszałek, Żaneta Szczęśniak, Aleksandra Cieślińska, Natalia Skierkowska, Beata Przybysz, Dobrawa Kwolik, Dominika Siekacz, Dominika Rybarczyk, Sławomir Kujawski

Abstract


Introduction: Some epidemiological data indicate that moderate-to-vigorous levels of physical activity could be beneficial for longevity. Moreover, in terms of cognitive functioning, mental activities undertaking during first decades of life translate to better coping with pathological changes of brain during aging. Therefore, it is worth to examine the relationship between the most intense form of regular physical exercise undertaking, which is typical for the former elite athletes, with longevity.

Material and methods: Articles in the EBSCO database have been analyzed using keywords: longevity, ex-elite athletes, former elite athletes, ex-athletes, mortality, chronic diseases.

Results: Reviewed literature described the longevity of participants who were active elite athletes. Analyzed groups could be separated based on sport type: aerobic, anaerobic and mixed, and due to, inter alia, sex and race of sportsmen.

Conclusions: There is some evidence for increased longevity in the former elite athletes of aerobic and mixed sports and for decreased longevity in anaerobic, comparing to general population. However, there is need for further studies with design which could explain the mechanism of differences in longevity and incorporate potentially confounding factors.

 


Keywords


longevity, ex-elite athletes, former elite athletes, ex-athletes, mortality, chronic diseases

Full Text:

PDF

References


Gremeaux, V., Gayda, M., Lepers, R., Sosner, P., Juneau, M., & Nigam, A. (2012). Exercise and longevity. Maturitas, 73(4), 312-317.

Sergiev, P. V., Dontsova, O. A., & Berezkin, G. V. (2015). Theories of aging: an ever-evolving field. Acta Naturae (англоязычная версия), 7(1 (24)).

Ashton, T., Young, I. S., Peters, J. R., Jones, E., Jackson, S. K., Davies, B., & Rowlands, C. C. (1999). Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, exercise, and oxidative stress: an ascorbic acid intervention study. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(6), 2032-2036.

Bailey, D. M., Young, I. S., McEneny, J., Lawrenson, L., Kim, J., Barden, J., & Richardson, R. S. (2004). Regulation of free radical outflow from an isolated muscle bed in exercising humans. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 287(4), H1689-H1699.

Bailey, D. M., Lawrenson, L., Mceneny, J., Young, I. S., James, P. E., Jackson, S. K., ... & Richardson, R. S. (2007). Electron paramagnetic spectroscopic evidence of exercise-induced free radical accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Free radical research, 41(2), 182-190.

Gomes, E. C., Silva, A. N., & Oliveira, M. R. D. (2012). Oxidants, antioxidants, and the beneficial roles of exercise-induced production of reactive species. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2012.

Lee, I. M., & Paffenbarger Jr, R. S. (2000). Associations of light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity with longevity: the Harvard Alumni Health Study. American journal of epidemiology, 151(3), 293-299.

Fisher-Wellman, K., & Bloomer, R. J. (2009). Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history. Dynamic medicine, 8(1), 1.

Samitz, G., Egger, M., & Zwahlen, M. (2011). Domains of physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of cohort studies. International journal of epidemiology, 40(5), 1382-1400.

Stern, Y. (2002). What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8(3), 448-460.

Herlenius, E., & Lagercrantz, H. (2004). Development of neurotransmitter systems during critical periods. Experimental neurology, 190, 8-21.

Morgan, J. E. (1873). University oars. Macmillan & Company.

YAMAJI, K., & SHEPHARD, R. J. (1977). Longevity and causes of death of athletes. Journal of human ergology, 6(1), 15-27.

Lemez, S., & Baker, J. (2015). Do elite athletes live longer? a systematic review of mortality and longevity in elite athletes. Sports medicine-open, 1(1), 16

Kettunen, J. A., Kujala, U. M., Kaprio, J., Bäckmand, H., Peltonen, M., Eriksson, J. G., & Sarna, S. (2015). All-cause and disease-specific mortality among male, former elite athletes: an average 50-year follow-up. Br J Sports Med, 49(13), 893-897.

Kujala, U. M., Tikkanen, H. O., Sarna, S., Pukkala, E., Kaprio, J., & Koskenvuo, M. (2001). Disease-specific mortality among elite athletes. JAMA, 285(1), 44-45.

Sarna, S. E. P. P. O., Sahi, T., Koskenvuo, M. A. R. K. K. U., & Kaprio, J. A. A. K. K. O. (1993). Increased life expectancy of world class male athletes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 25(2), 237-244

Sarna, S., Kaprio, J., Kujala, U. M., & Koskenvuo, M. (1997). Health status of former elite athletes. The Finnish experience. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 9(1-2), 35-41.

Balia, S., & Jones, A. M. (2008). Mortality, lifestyle and socio-economic status. Journal of health economics, 27(1), 1-26.

Noakes, T. D., Myburgh, K. H., & Schall, R. (1990). Peak treadmill running velocity during the V O2 max test predicts running performance. Journal of sports sciences, 8(1), 35-45.

Tabata, I., Nishimura, K., Kouzaki, M., Hirai, Y., Ogita, F., Miyachi, M., & Yamamoto, K. (1996). Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 28(10), 1327-1330.

Stathokostas, L., Jacob-Johnson, S., Petrella, R. J., & Paterson, D. H. (2004). Longitudinal changes in aerobic power in older men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(2), 781-789.

Vogel, T., Brechat, P. H., Leprêtre, P. M., Kaltenbach, G., Berthel, M., & Lonsdorfer, J. (2009). Health benefits of physical activity in older patients: a review. International journal of clinical practice, 63(2), 303-320.

Faulkner, J. A., Davis, C. S., Mendias, C. L., & Brooks, S. V. (2008). The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function. Clinical journal of sport medicine: official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine, 18(6), 501.

Teramoto, M., & Bungum, T. J. (2010). Mortality and longevity of elite athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(4), 410-416.

Morcet, J., Perrin, M., Trégaro, M., Carré, F., & Deugnier, Y. (2012). Mortalité d'une cohorte de 514 cyclistes de haut niveau.[Mortality in a cohort of 514 elite road cyclists.]. Science and Sports, 27(1), 9-15.

Marijon, E., Tafflet, M., Antero-Jacquemin, J., El Helou, N., Berthelot, G., Celermajer, D. S., ... & Rey, G. (2013). Mortality of French participants in the Tour de France (1947–2012). European heart journal, 34(40), 3145-3150.

Sanchis-Gomar, F., Olaso-Gonzalez, G., Corella, D., Gomez-Cabrera, M. C., & Vina, J. (2011). Increased average longevity among the “Tour de France” cyclists. International journal of sports medicine, 32(08), 644-647.

Grimsmo, J., Maehlum, S., Moelstad, P., & Arnesen, H. (2011). Mortality and cardiovascular morbidity among long‐term endurance male cross country skiers followed for 28–30 years. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 21(6).

Menotti, A., Amici, E., Gambelli, G. C., Milazzotto, F., Bellotti, P., Capocaccia, R., & Giuli, B. (1990). Life expectancy in Italian track and field athletes. European journal of epidemiology, 6(3), 257-260.

Pärssinen, M., Kujala, U., Vartiainen, E., Sarna, S., & Seppälä, T. (2000). Increased premature mortality of competitive powerlifters suspected to have used anabolic agents. International journal of sports medicine, 21(03), 225-227.

Clarke, P. M., Walter, S. J., Hayen, A., Mallon, W. J., Heijmans, J., & Studdert, D. M. (2015). Survival of the fittest: retrospective cohort study of the longevity of Olympic medallists in the modern era. Br J Sports Med, 49(13), 898-902.

Lindqvist, A. S., Moberg, T., Ehrnborg, C., Eriksson, B. O., Fahlke, C., & Rosén, T. (2014). Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 24(6), 1000-1005.

Baron, S. L., Hein, M. J., Lehman, E., & Gersic, C. M. (2012). Body mass index, playing position, race, and the cardiovascular mortality of retired professional football players. The American journal of cardiology, 109(6), 889-896.

Abel, E. L., & Kruger, M. L. (2005). The longevity of baseball hall of famers compared to other players. Death studies, 29(10), 959-963.

Koning RH, Amelink R. Medium-term mortality of Dutch professional soccer players. The Econ and Labour Relations Rev. 2012;23:55–68.

Kuss, O., Kluttig, A., & Greiser, K. H. (2011). Longevity of soccer players: an investigation of all German internationals from 1908 to 2006. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 21(6).

Coate, D., & Sun, R. (2013). Survival estimates for elite male and female Olympic athletes and tennis championship competitors. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 23(6), 722-727.

Lawler, T., Lawler, F., Gibson, J., & Murray, R. (2012). Does the African-American–White Mortality Gap Persist After Playing Professional Basketball? A 59-Year Historical Cohort Study. Annals of epidemiology, 22(6), 406-412.

Abel, E. L., & Kruger, M. L. (2007). Precocity predicts shorter life for major league baseball players: Confirmation of McCann's precocity-longevity hypothesis. Death studies, 31(10), 933-940.

Schnohr, P. (1971). Longevity and causes of death in male athletic champions. The Lancet, 298(7738), 1364-1366.

Kujala, U. M., Marti, P., Kaprio, J., Hernelahti, M., Tikkanen, H., & Sarna, S. (2003). Occurrence of Chronic Disease in Former Top-Level Athletes. Sports Medicine, 33(8), 553-561.

Gómez-Gallego, F., Ruiz, J. R., Buxens, A., Altmäe, S., Artieda, M., Santiago, C., ... & Tejedor, D. (2010). Are elite endurance athletes genetically predisposed to lower disease risk?. Physiological genomics, 41(1), 82-90.

Booth, F. W., Chakravarthy, M. V., & Spangenburg, E. E. (2002). Exercise and gene expression: physiological regulation of the human genome through physical activity. The Journal of physiology, 543(2), 399-411.

O’Keefe, J. H., Franklin, B., & Lavie, C. J. (2014, September). Exercising for health and longevity vs peak performance: different regimens for different goals. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 89, No. 9, pp. 1171-1175). Elsevier.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.853509

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/search?search&searchCategory=WORK&filter.inJournal=36616

POL-index 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-32a319c5-a850-4f44-ba70-1418a6087655

BASE 2011 - 2014

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=Journal+of+Health+Sciences+%28Radom%29&type=all&oaboost=1&ling=1&name=&thes=&refid=dcrespl&newsearch=1

http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/issue/archive

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101679844

Find a library that holds this journal: http://worldcat.org/issn/23918306

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/journals/49068

POL-index

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-c39c8169-88d2-45db-9e7f-d948ce9981c4

BASE

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?join=AND&bool0[]=AND&lookfor0[]=2391-8306&type0[]=all&page=11&l=pl&oaboost=1&refid=dcpagepl

Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2  www.ukw.edu.pl Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=485984

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.

http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/Journal+of+Education+Health+and+Sport,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase Index.com.

Website: www.infobaseindex.com

Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (http://www.uifactor.org/AppliedJournals.aspx)

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/journals/36616)

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ) http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski

(http://www1.bg.us.edu.pl/bazy/czasopisma/czasop_full.asp?id=3595)