Physical activity in healthy, older people. How many drops of sweat away from gain the health benefit?

Agnieszka Kujawska, Radosław Perkowski, Joanna Androsiuk-Perkowska, Natalia Skierkowska, Małgorzata Gajos, Weronika Topka, Sławomir Kujawski, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska


Introduction: Aging process leads to increased risk of functional impairments and diseases occurrence. Sedentary lifestyle is one of the main risk factors the occurrence of chronic disease such a diabetes and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, results of many studies showed that regular physical activity (PA) and physical exercise (PE) could decrease the risk of these hazards. Last decades were fruitful in developing evidence-based recommendations for physical activity and exercise in older people, therefore it is worth to examine dynamics of development and the similarities between different recommendations. 

Material and methods: Articles in the EBSCO database have been analyzed using keywords: older people, physical exercise, physical activity, recommendations, aerobic training, resistance training.

Results: Studies showed that people who were more active during lifetime, have greater self-efficacy, better physical and mental health status and in general higher satisfaction on the autumn of their life. Every analyzed recommendation underlies the negative consequences of sedentary activity, however, there is no evidence-based “cut-off” point. Similarly, there is not clear optimal “dose” of PA or PE to prescribe for older patients.

Conclusions: It seems that undertaking light level of PA activity is more beneficial than none PA or sedentary lifestyle. The newest recommendations underlie the possibility of the existence of positive linear relationship between the level of PA and health benefits: every additional amount of time spent on PA during week could be related with additional health benefit



Older people, physical exercise, physical activity, recommendations, aerobic exercise training, resistance exercise training

Full Text:



Van der Ploeg, H. P., Chey, T., Korda, R. J., Banks, E., & Bauman, A. (2012). Sitting time and all-cause mortality risk in 222 497 Australian adults. Archives of internal medicine, 172(6), 494-500.

Wilmot, E. G., Edwardson, C. L., Achana, F. A., Davies, M. J., Gorely, T., Gray, L. J., ... & Biddle, S. J. (2012). Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Chief Medical Officers of England SWaNI. Start active, stay active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. London: Crown; 2011.

Chodzko-Zajko, W. J., Proctor, D. N., Singh, M. A. F., Minson, C. T., Nigg, C. R., Salem, G. J., & Skinner, J. S. (2009). Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine & science in sports & exercise, 41(7), 1510-1530. S. 2748—110th Congress (2008): Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Act of 2008, (database of federal legislation).

McAuley, E., Konopack, J. F., Motl, R. W., Morris, K. S., Doerksen, S. E., & Rosengren, K. R. (2006). Physical activity and quality of life in older adults: influence of health status and self-efficacy. Annals of behavioral Medicine, 31(1), 99-103.

Haskell, W. L., Lee, I. M., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., ... & Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116(9), 1081.

Ainsworth, B. E., Haskell, W. L., Whitt, M. C., Irwin, M. L., Swartz, A. M., Strath, S. J., ... & Jacobs, D. R. (2000). Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 32(9; SUPP/1), S498-S504.

Grimsmo, J., Maehlum, S., Moelstad, P., & Arnesen, H. (2011). Mortality and cardiovascular morbidity among long‐term endurance male cross country skiers followed for 28–30 years. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 21(6).

Sanchis-Gomar, F., Olaso-Gonzalez, G., Corella, D., Gomez-Cabrera, M. C., & Vina, J. (2011). Increased average longevity among the “Tour de France” cyclists. International journal of sports medicine, 32(08), 644-647.

I'FEIFFER, E. R. I. C. (1970). Survival in old age: physical, psychological and social correlates of longevity. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 18(4), 273-285.

Morris, J. N., Heady, J. A., Raffle, P. A. B., Roberts, C. G., & Parks, J. W. (1953). Coronary heart-disease and physical activity of work. The Lancet, 262(6796), 1111-1120.

Paffenbarger Jr, R. S., Hyde, R., Wing, A. L., & Hsieh, C. C. (1986). Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. New England journal of medicine, 314(10), 605-613.

Wen, C. P., Wai, J. P. M., Tsai, M. K., Yang, Y. C., Cheng, T. Y. D., Lee, M. C., ... & Wu, X. (2011). Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet, 378(9798), 1244-1253.

Ekelund, U., Steene-Johannessen, J., Brown, W. J., Fagerland, M. W., Owen, N., Powell, K. E., ... & Lancet Sedentary Behaviour Working Group. (2016). Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. The Lancet, 388(10051), 1302-1310.

WHO Guidelines Approved by the Guidelines Review Committee. (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 31-2.

Bouchard, C., Blair, S. N., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2015, November). Less sitting, more physical activity, or higher fitness?. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 90, No. 11, pp. 1533-1540). Elsevier.

Sparling, P. B., Howard, B. J., Dunstan, D. W., & Owen, N. (2015). Recommendations for physical activity in older adults. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 350.

Beddhu, S., Wei, G., Marcus, R. L., Chonchol, M., & Greene, T. (2015). Light-intensity physical activities and mortality in the United States general population and CKD subpopulation. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, CJN-08410814.

World Health Organization. (2014). Age-friendly world-Adding life to years.

Garfield, V., Llewellyn, C. H., & Kumari, M. (2016). The relationship between physical activity, sleep duration and depressive symptoms in older adults: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Preventive medicine reports, 4, 512-516.

Müezzinler, A., Zaineddin, A. K., & Brenner, H. (2013). A systematic review of leukocyte telomere length and age in adults. Ageing research reviews, 12(2), 509-519.

Haycock, P. C., Heydon, E. E., Kaptoge, S., Butterworth, A. S., Thompson, A., & Willeit, P. (2014). Leucocyte telomere length and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Bmj, 349, g4227.

Ding, C. C., Chen, X. R., Zhang, Z., & Li, K. J. (2009). Exercise and walking intensity and level of Beijing adult residents. Chi J Sports Med, 28, 362-364.

Hallal, P. C., Victora, C. G., Wells, J. C., & Lima, R. D. C. (2003). Physical inactivity: prevalence and associated variables in Brazilian adults. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 35(11), 1894-1900.

Knuth, A. G., Bacchieri, G., Victora, C. G., & Hallal, P. C. (2010). Changes in physical activity among Brazilian adults over a 5-year period. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.

Meyer, K., Rezny, L., Breuer, C., Lamprecht, M., & Stamm, H. P. (2005). Physical activity of adults aged 50 years and older in Switzerland. Sozial-und Präventivmedizin/Social and Preventive Medicine, 50(4), 218-229.

Frank, L., Kerr, J., Rosenberg, D., & King, A. (2010). Healthy aging and where you live: community design relationships with physical activity and body weight in older Americans. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, S82-S90.

Zhao, J., Miao, K., Wang, H., Ding, H., & Wang, D. W. (2013). Association between telomere length and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. PloS one, 8(11), e79993.

Wentzensen, I. M., Mirabello, L., Pfeiffer, R. M., & Savage, S. A. (2011). The association of telomere length and cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers.

Du, M., Prescott, J., Kraft, P., Han, J., Giovannucci, E., Hankinson, S. E., & De Vivo, I. (2012). Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and leukocyte telomere length in women. American journal of epidemiology, 175(5), 414-422.

Shadyab, A. H., LaMonte, M. J., Kooperberg, C., Reiner, A. P., Carty, C. L., Manini, T. M., ... & Shaffer, R. A. (2017). Leisure-time physical activity and leukocyte telomere length among older women. Experimental Gerontology.

Schrack, J. A., Cooper, R., Koster, A., Shiroma, E. J., Murabito, J. M., Rejeski, W. J., ... & Harris, T. B. (2016). Assessing daily physical activity in older adults: unraveling the complexity of monitors, measures, and methods. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences, 71(8), 1039-1048.

Berkemeyer, K., Wijndaele, K., White, T., Cooper, A. J. M., Luben, R., Westgate, K., ... & Brage, S. (2016). The descriptive epidemiology of accelerometer-measured physical activity in older adults. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(1), 2.

Amagasa, S., Fukushima, N., Kikuchi, H., Takamiya, T., Oka, K., & Inoue, S. (2017). Light and sporadic physical activity overlooked by current guidelines makes older women more active than older men. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 59.

Keadle, S. K., McKinnon, R., Graubard, B. I., & Troiano, R. P. (2016). Prevalence and trends in physical activity among older adults in the United States: A comparison across three national surveys. Preventive medicine, 89, 37-43.

Parsons, T. J., Sartini, C., Ash, S., Lennon, L. T., Wannamethee, S. G., Lee, I. M., ... & Jefferis, B. J. (2017). Objectively measured physical activity and kidney function in older men; a cross-sectional population-based study. Age and Ageing, 1-5.

Parsons, T. J., Sartini, C., Ellins, E. A., Halcox, J. P., Smith, K. E., Ash, S., ... & Jefferis, B. J. (2016). Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour and ankle brachial index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in older men. Atherosclerosis, 247, 28-34.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 © The Author (s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski