Improving body composition and strength in athletes through a 4-month combined martial arts and strength training program

Aleksandra Stachoń, Anna Burdukiewicz, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Justyna Andrzejewska, Tadeusz Stefaniak


Stachoń Aleksandra, Burdukiewicz Anna, Pietraszewska Jadwiga, Andrzejewska Justyna, Stefaniak Tadeusz. Improving body composition and strength in athletes through a 4-month combined martial arts and strength training program. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(6):445-458. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI


The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 755 (23.12.2015).

755 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

© The Author (s) 2016;

This article is published with open access at Licensee Open Journal Systems of Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland

Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,

provided the original author(s) and source are credited. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License

( which permits unrestricted, non commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non commercial

use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Received: 05.05.2016. Revised 25.05.2016. Accepted: 16.06.2016.


Improving body composition and strength in athletes through a 4-month combined martial arts and strength training program



1Aleksandra Stachoń, 1Anna Burdukiewicz, 1Jadwiga Pietraszewska, 1Justyna Andrzejewska, 2Tadeusz Stefaniak


1Zakład Antropologii Fizycznej, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, ul. Paderewskiego 35, Wrocław

2Zakład Sportów Indywidualnych, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, ul. Paderewskiego 35, Wrocław




Corresponding author:

Dr Aleksandra Jadwiga Stachoń, e-mail:

Departament of Physical Anthropology, University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, al. I.J. Paderewskiego 35, bud. P2, 51-612 Wrocław; Poland

Phone: 71 347 33 44





Key words: resistance training, body build, body composition, combat sport.



Background and aim. Body composition is one of key components of health in both general and athletic populations. In martial arts great significance is attached to the development of mesomorphy and strength, which are crucial for performing offensive and defensive actions during fights. The study proposes to introduce progressive strength training programme - arranged primarily for beginners – in order to improve body composition of non-elite male martial arts competitors. The present study aims to evaluate the changes in body massiveness, body composition and strength in 31 martial arts practitioners from academic sports clubs after a combined martial arts and strength training programme.

Material and methods. The 16-week intervention was based on a targeted progressive resistance training protocol developed by Stefaniak [1995]. The anthropometric, physical and motoric measurements were performed twice at four months interval. This programme includes training three times weekly with increased number of repetitions (19-24), number of sets (1-3) and increased loads (5%).

Results. After the completion of the training program, significant increase for about 1.8 kgin body mass was observed. Body massiveness (BMI) increased from 23.2 ± 1.8 kg/m2 to 23.9 ± 1.8 kg/m2. The analysis using Sheldon’s somatotypes revealed an increase of mesomorphy (from 5.5 to 5.7) and decrease of ectomorphy (from 2.5 to 2.4). The level of endomorphy became stable (2.1). The maximal circumferences of flexed arm, forearm, calf and thigh increased significantly of about 0.6-1.2 cm. The amount of fat mass remained unchanged, but the amount of fat free mass and muscle mass increased about1.5 kg (MM from 43.7 ±4.8 kg to 45.3 ±5.5 kg). Back muscle strength increased of10.0 kg. In left hand there was visible increase of grip strength, whereas right hand grip strength became stable.

Conclusions. The results of the present study indicate that even experienced but non-elite academic male martial artists could improve their body composition and muscle strength by completing the proposed strength training programme together with martial arts training. The effect of symmetrization in hand grip strength is beneficial for sport performance and everyday movements practice.


resistance training; body build; body composition; combat sport

Full Text:



Artioli G, Franchini E, Nicastro H, Sterkowicz S, Solis MY, Lancha AH. The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010; 7 (1): 15. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-7-15.

Moore DR, Burqomaster KA, Schofield LM, Gibala MJ, Sale DG, Phillips SM. Neuromuscular adaptations in human muscle following low intensity resistance training with vascular occlusion. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004; 92: 399-406. doi: 10.1007/s00421-004-1072-y

Schoenfeld BJ. The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. 2010; 24(10): 2857-2872. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e840f3.

Morton SK, Whitehead JR, Brinkert RH, Caine DJ. Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2011; 25(12): 3391-3398. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31821624aa.

Simão R, Lemos A, Salles B, Leite T, Oliveira É, Rhea M et al. The influence of strength, flexibility, and simultaneous training on flexibility and strength gains. J Strength Cond Res. 2011, 25(5):1333-1338. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181da85bf

Otto WH, Coburn JW, Brown LE, Spiering BA. Effects of Weightlifting vs. Kettlebell Training on Vertical Jump, Strength, and Body Composition. J Strength Cond Res, 2012; 26(5): 1199–1202. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31824f233e

Saraiva AR, Reis VM, Costa PB, Bentes CM, Costa e Silva GV, Novaes JS. Chronic Effects of Different Resistance Training Exercise Orders on Flexibility in Elite Judo Athletes. J Hum Kinet. 2014; 40: 129–137. doi: 10.2478/hukin-2014-0015

Blais L, Trilles F. The progress achieved by judokas after strength training with a judo-specific machine. J Sports Sci Med. 2006; 5:132–135.

American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41(3): 687-708. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181915670

Newham DJ, Strength, power and endurance. In: Trew M, Everett T (editors). Human Movement. London UK: Churchill Livingstone; 2001.

Häkkinen K, Alén M, Komi PV. Changes in isometric force- and relaxation-time, electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of human skeletal muscle during strength training and detraining. Acta Physiol Scand. 1985; 125(4): 573-585. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1985.tb07760.x

Ballor DL. Exercises training and body composition changes. In: Roche AF, Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG (editors). Human Body Composition. Leeds UK: Human Kinetics; 1996.

Fukuda DH, Stout JR, Burris PM, Fukuda RS. Judo for Children and Adolescents: Benefits of Combat Sports. Strength Cond J. 2011; 33: 60–63. doi: 10.1519/SSC.0b013e3182389e74

Imamura RT, Hreljac A, Escamilla RF, Edwards WB. A three-dimensional analysis of the center of mass for three different judo throwing techniques. J Sports Sci Med. 2006; 5(CSSI): 122-131.

Franchini E, Panissa VL, Julio UF. Physiological and performance responses to intermittent Uchi-komi in Judo. J Strength Cond Res. 2013; 27(4): 1147-1155.

Adam M. Ocena przygotowania techniczno-taktycznego zawodników judo. Sport Wyczynowy. 2008; 1-3: 40-47. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182606d27

Stefaniak T. Atlas uniwersalnych ćwiczeń siłowych. Wydawnictwo BK, Wrocław 1995.

Carter JEL, Heath BH. Somatotyping – development and applications. Cambridge Studies in Biological Anthropology, 5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990.

Franchini E, Takito MY, Kiss M, Strerkowicz S. Physical fitness and anthropometrical differences between elite and non-elite judo players. Biology of Sport. 2005; 22(4): 315-328.

Franchini E, Nunes AV, Moraes JM, Del Vecchio FB. Physical Fitness and Anthropometrical Profile of the Brazilian Male Judo Team. J Physiolo Anthropol. 2007; 26 (2): 59-67.

Abidin NZ, Adam MB. Prediction of Vertical Jump Height from Anthropometric Factors in Male and Female Martial Arts Athletes. Malays J Med Sci. 2013; 20(1): 39–45.

Cloutier G, Forman D, Lindegger N, Roubenoff R, Castaneda-Sceppa C. Effects of a short-term heavy resistance training in young and older adults for strength and body composition. The FASEB Journal. 2014; 28 (1 Supp): 028.1

Baker JS, Davies B, Cooper SM, Wong DP, Buchan DS, Kilgore L. Strength and Body Composition Changes in Recreationally Strength-Trained Individuals: Comparison of One versus Three Sets Resistance-Training Programmes. Biomed Res Int. 2013: 615901.

Starosta W, Pawłowa T. Level of selected movement coordination abilities in different trainings periods in athletes Polish National Team of Traditional Karate. J Combat Sports Martial Arts. 2011; 2(2): 95-101. doi: 10.5604/20815735.1047141

Ali PN, Hanachi P, Nejad NR. The Relation of Body Fats, Anthropometric Factor and Physiological Functions of Iranian Female National Judo Team. Modern Appl Sci. 2010; 4: 25–29.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski